If a sentence starts with an adverbial phrase, should I place a comma after it?

Someone was proofreading a letter I wrote and stating that I use too many commas. Many of the examples are cases where a sentence starts with an adverbial phrase: Furthermore, I have developed In particular, I have focused With this toolkit, we have created For this study, I have cooperated Are the commas in these … Read more

Difference between “however” and “whereas”?

What is the difference between however and whereas? Cooking is hard, whereas eating is easy. Can I use however in that sentence (instead of whereas) or not? If not, why? The meaning of the two words seems very much the same: they both show a contrast between two things. I am confused about how and … Read more

Comma before “but”

Do I need a comma before “but”? I like your car but it seems to me too expensive for you. Or I like your car, but it seems to me too expensive for you. My native languages are Ukrainian and Russian. In these languages this comma is required. Answer Either is ok. Commas indicate a … Read more

Intonation difference between restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses

He had four sons who became doctors. He had four sons, who became doctors. Is there any difference in intonation between restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses? Answer Sentences Imagine a long piece of writing. If you look at the grammar, you will see that everything is organised into ‘chunks’. So if we look at the … Read more