If X or [if] Y – Should I extend conditional after “or”?

I have a message to write where the recipient may encounter two problems. It is currently written like this: “If you are having problem X or if you are having problem Y please contact Z.” I’m not sure if the second if is necessary or even allowed. Should it be: “If you are having problem … Read more

Verb agreement with a phrase set off by “but”

A coworker is writing a sentence like Sally, but especially Joe, enjoys questions about grammar and usage. He thinks it should be Sally, but especially Joe, enjoy questions about grammar and usage. Leaving aside the possibility of rewriting the sentence, I want to understand which part of the subject controls the verb’s number. Consider the … Read more

Conjunction – “or” – meaning. Is it eliminate the previous/afterwards alternative

In programming and logic, for example, the “or” is meaning something that may or may not be added to the previous or afterwards: A or B (A only; B only; A and B). However, in real live conversations it’s usually not the case. If someone says A or B, they will probably mean: A without … Read more

List: Joining three compound items, two with a common element

Which one is the most proper way to structure a list comprising “metabolic diseases,” “microvascular complications,” and “macrovascular complications” in the following example: High blood glucose increases the risk of metabolic diseases, microvascular complications, and macrovascular complications. metabolic diseases, microvascular, and macrovascular complications. metabolic diseases and microvascular and macrovascular complications. metabolic diseases, and microvascular and … Read more

‘although’ meaning ‘but’

Most dictionaries I know of say that ‘although’ has two related but different usages. For example, Oxford Living Dictionaries define it as follows: 1 In spite of the fact that; even though. ‘although the sun was shining it wasn’t that warm’ ‘although small, the room has a spacious feel’ 1.1 However; but. ‘he says he … Read more

Using the conjunction “as” to express similarity

Is the following sentence gramatically corrent? He has shown sufficient technical aptitude, as has he high motivation to complete the project earlier. In this sentence what meant is that the person has shown both the technical aptitude and the high motivation. I am not sure the as – aux. verb. – subject (e.g. as has … Read more

Can a conjuction prevent run-on sentences without punctuation?

I understand that run-on sentences join independent clauses without a word to connect them or a punctuation mark to separate them, but can a connecting word suffice to prevent a sentence from running on? (Yeah, I just ended that with a preposition. Grammar Girl’s got my back.) For instance: I know a comma without a … Read more

Given that: a preposition or conjunction

The Oxford Living Dictionaries defines given that as a conjunction. when you consider something However the dictionary defines the preposition given in the following way: taking into consideration. Example: It was surprising the government was re-elected, given that they had raised taxes so much. However, the examples of ‘given‘ as a preposition contains the same … Read more

Comma placement conjunctions

Please Help! My question was not answered on ELL, and I’m studying for the ACT. I don’t understand the answer to this question. Scientists did not find it problematic to explain the physical world with nonphysical phenomenon in seventeenth-century England. Though Bacon did. A) No Change B) England, but Bacon did. C) England; Bacon did. … Read more