I am trying to cope with the ever increasing trend of new phrases in English language and found something.
I have heard many a times people use “Do you have a/the time?” In reply, either we say “Yes/No” depending upon our schedule or we tell the current time.
In which cases do we use a or the? Is it tense specific?
“Do you have the time?” would be used to ask what time it is currently.
“Do you have time?” would be used to ask if the person has time in their schedule.
To the best of my knowledge “Do you have a time?” is not used at all, at least in standard American English. It can however be used as a phrase in a larger question (as graciously pointed out by J.R.). An example of this could be “Do you have a time of the year you prefer?”