In the following sentence,
I did quite well in the examination, without having to burn the midnight oil.
What is “having” — a gerund, a participle, or just a present continuous verb?
I tried Wren & Martin, but without luck.
I did quite well in the examination, without having to burn the
“Having” is a gerund-participle verb heading the non-finite clause “having to burn the midnight oil”.
Traditional grammar would call it a gerund since the clause functions as complement of the preposition “without”, where nouns typically occur.
Modern grammar does not usually distinguish the two forms, ‘gerund’ and ‘present participle’, but simply lumps them together calling them ‘gerund-participles’.