How did “stroke” become the verb “strike” to mean “deal a blow”?

I’ve just been looking up the etymology of the word “strike,” as in “The pedestrian was struck by a vehicle.” (I was curious about why we always seem to use “struck” in this situation).

A quick Google search reveals that it comes from the Old English strican, which means “to pass lightly over, stroke, smooth, rub lightly” and is related to the German streichen, “to stroke.” This of course seems much different than the current usage, “to strike a blow,” or to hit hard. The Online Etymology Dictionary says that the sense of dealing a blow came around by the early 14th century in Middle English, but I can’t find anything to explain how this may have happened.

I’m very curious about how this word went from referring to a smooth and caressing action to a hard and damage-dealing one. Any clues?


I suspect that John Lawler’s comment is the key to this question. The earliest use of “strike” in this sense in the OED refers to being struck by a weapon. As noted in the aforementioned comment, passing over something with a weapon carries an inherent implication of violence, which probably stuck with this sense of “strike” until it became as common as it is today.

The earliest cited use is from 1377

Al-þough þow stryke me with þi staffe with stikke or with ȝerde.

  • 1377 – Langland Piers Plowman B. xii. 14

The OED offers no specific etymological notes for this sense beyond what has been outlined in the question, so this explanation for the sense related to hitting something is somewhat speculative.

Source : Link , Question Author : Cheyenne Taylor , Answer Author : RaceYouAnytime

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