Compare the sentences:
- I spilled water on the floor.
- I spilled water on the table and floor.
- I spilled water on the table and the chair.
- Is the missing the before floor in the second sentence correct?
- If so, is the the before chair in the third sentence optional?
- What is the general rule applicable in such cases? Is it rule related to the conjunction, or the nature of the noun like floor, or both?
The Chicago Manual of Style Chapter 5, Section 73 (sorry, subscription required) says that, with a series of coordinate nouns, an article may appear before each noun, but is not necessary.
So, for question 1:
Is the missing the before floor in I spilled water on the table and floor correct?
Is the the before chair in I spilled water on the table and the chair optional?
In these cases, it is a matter of preference and, perhaps, emphasis.