Is “In following, …” acceptable in place of “In the following, …”?

In editing a recent question, I wrote:

In following, realtype stands for …

Later, it got edited (two words were added) to read:

In the following example, realtype stands for …

The latter edit is incorrect because realtype stands for the same thing in the whole question, not just in the example; but for the purpose of this question, that’s minor and doesn’t matter. The real question is whether in following is acceptable; is there any semantic or grammatical error with using in following instead of in the following?

I realize that in following is used only infrequently when in the following might be used in its place. In instances I looked at after a Google Books search, it was used mostly by Indian or German speakers of English; for example:

… the most relevant constraints … are summarized in following. – Valuation of Network Effects in Software Markets, Andreas Kemper, 2009

Note, this question is not about how frequently one phrase or another is used; it’s not about personal preferences or other ways to say the same thing; instead, it asks if use of in following violates any important English-language tenets.


As you found in your research, this may be dialectal. In British English, the is required to turn following into an adjective, rather than having it parsed as a verb.

In following [something] → the something is being followed
In the following [something] → the something follows

  • In following their officers’ orders, the Light Brigade charged into history.
  • In following examples, we learn from others [Verb: “By following examples”]
  • In the following examples, we learn from others [Adjective: “In the examples which follow this sentence”]

Context may allow the [something] to be omitted.

  • The officers gave orders to the men. In following [those orders], they rode to oblivion.
  • In the following [example], realtype stands for…

That is, in British English at least, a present participle is prioritised as a verb when used with in like this, and it needs the if it is to be parsed as an adjective.

Source : Link , Question Author : James Waldby – jwpat7 , Answer Author : Andrew Leach

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