What is the word for the edges in the side of the buildings which are marked in the pictures? In some building which is big where a person can stand or even sit.
Not I’m not referring balcony or porch.
Those in your second photograph are sections of a cornice, “any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element” – Wikipedia. If you look closely you will see those are not distinct architectural elements but portions of a continuous ledge or shelf which runs the entire width of the building, jogging around capitals where you have marked and returning to follow the contours of the facade below. There is a similar, slightly less marked cornice above the second story of the same building.
The original purpose of the cornice was to divert rainwater from the facade (in domestic architecture any cornice is usually married with the eaves, the overhang of the roof), and in classical architecture there was only one cornice, at the top, immediately below the gable. Even in antiquity, however, it was not unknown to build taller buildings by stacking orders, and from the Renaissance onward it became common for architects to divide their facades into horizontal registers with two or more cornices, as in your second photograph.
In your first photograph, the ledges are similarly formed, but I would hesitate to call them cornices; in the very top right corner it is evident that the partially visible bracket will support a deeper ledge which might be so characterized. I don’t know what art historians would call the shallower elements you highlight; I’d just call them ‘window ledges’.
Source : Link , Question Author : T2E , Answer Author : StoneyB on hiatus