pictures painted & pictures which had been painted

What is the difference between these sentences and when to use each one of them? :

-George showed me some pictures painted by his father.

-George showed me some pictures which had been painted by his father.

Answer

George showed me some pictures painted by his father.

This sentence uses the participial phrase to adjectivally modify the noun “pictures.”

As a modifier, the phrase “painted by his father” can be either restrictive or non-restrictive. If it is restrictive, it means there were also other paintings there not painted by his father that you saw or that George showed you, but if it’s non-restrictive, it means there weren’t other paintings there, just paintings by George’s father.

Between these two meanings, we don’t really know which is meant, but maybe it’s not important, or maybe we know because in the context of the conversation, we could already surmise which of these two possibilities is meant.

George showed me some pictures which had been painted by his father.

This sentence uses the restrictive clause “which had been painted by his father” to modify the noun “pictures.” We know that it is a restrictive clause because of the lack of comma before “which.” Being a restrictive clause, we can presume there were also other pictures there that George’s father hadn’t painted. Were there a comma before “which,” it would be a non-restrictive clause and thus would mean that the only pictures there were ones painted by his father.

Added note:

Anyone who says that “George showed me some pictures painted by his father” means the same thing as “George showed me some pictures which had been painted by his father” is saying that “George showed me some pictures which had been painted by his father” means the same thing as “George showed me some pictures, which had been painted by his father,” and that is patently false.

https://www.grammarly.com/blog/using-that-and-which-is-all-about-restrictive-and-non-restrictive-clauses/

http://www.cws.illinois.edu/workshop/writers/restrictiveclauses/

Attribution
Source : Link , Question Author : Obada Mit , Answer Author : Billy

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