In such a question, what is most commonly done by native speakers of English:
focus on the past action of you putting the car keys somewhere – somewhere not-too-logical-seeming?
Where did you put the car keys?
focus on the present result of me not knowing where the car keys are, of the car keys having disappeared from sight?
Where have you put the car keys?
Do the two questions differ in the degree of annoyance they might express?
(No grammar book or website I know of, and I know quite a few, is detailed enough to deal with such a point – apart from this website, that is! Flatter than flatter? Flatterer?!)
Which expresses more annoyance:
"Where did you put the car keys?" or
"Where have you put the car keys?"
The annoyance is going to be delivered by the tone of voice and body language. However, I can say that Question #1 sounds a bit more accusatory, and is more likely to get the other person on the defensive, and that Question #2 comes across as intrinsically more low key.
I’m sorry, but I can’t think of any way of documenting this. If someone else thinks of something, he is welcome to add it to my answer, or write an answer from scratch (and I’ll delete mine).