“Could” with verbs of perception (was/were able to) vs Expressing specific action in the past

I’m puzzled about the usage of a modal verb could. My book “LONGMAN ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE” by L.G Alexander says that We use was/were able to or managed to (not could) to describe the successful completion of a SPECIFIC ACTION, for example, We were able to (we managed to) get tickets for the match yesterday … Read more

How many legitimate uses of “could of” / “would of” / “should of” are there?

After some bad calls using search/replace, I’m curious how many legitimate forms of “could/would/should of” there are. I’m interested in uses that do not derive from, and cannot be replaced by “could have,” “would have,” “should have,” or their contractions. One could of course add a few commas to this paragraph to make it easier … Read more

So, we don’t have “can have + PP” in English, do we? but we do have “can’t have +PP”, don’t we?

Modal verbs like can, could, may, might,…. are very difficult & arbitrary. According to this site: can’t have + past participle: I’m fairly sure this wasn’t true Ex: She can’t have stayed at home yesterday. I would say that we don’t have “can have + PP” in English, we have to use “could have + … Read more