Function of a line in this Reading Comprehension

While chocolate was highly esteemed in Mesoamerica, where it originated, its adoption in Europe was initially slow. There is a common belief that Europeans needed to “transform” chocolate to make it appetizing. However, while Spaniards did put sugar, which was unknown to indigenous Americans, into chocolate beverages, this additive was not completely innovative. Mesoamericans were … Read more

Which function word to use when using multiple verbs

Using the verbs in separate sentences: I upload images to the website. I download images from the website. (I’m referring to to and from as the function words). Which function word do I use when using the two different kinds of verbs together? I upload and download images <which function word here?> the website. Or … Read more

Is there a difference between the usage of “this” or “that” when referring back to an idea in the previous sentence?

In the following two sentences, is there any difference in what "this" or "that" would indicate about the previous sentence? Would one of them be less accurate than the other? We may run out of gasoline before the finish line. This would create a problem that isn’t easily resolved. We may run out of gasoline … Read more

Term for a function that is deliberately excercising edge cases

This is a single word adjective that is in general use, but which has a specific use as a semi-technical term in mathematics. It’s something like a “pessimistic” function, or a “lethal” function? It has the connotations of a function that only exists in order to prove that an edge case could in principle exist. … Read more

What is the term for something who is not part of any group

I have multiple elements. Some of the elements have been associated with some particular group while some other are still alone (they are not part of any group) Can you please suggest some term/word for such lonely element? Answer A singleton is defined (in one of its senses) as singleton n … a single object, … Read more

I don’t understand a function of phrase and a relative pronoun

I read an article today and didn’t understand the structure. "Facebook has 3 billion users across its portfolio of apps, a massive number that has raised questions by some legal experts, including US lawmakers, about whether Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg neutralizes competitive threats by gobbling them up." The subject is Facebook. What is the function … Read more

If a verb projects, does that make it complex?

There is a lot of discussion about simple, compound and complex sentences. However, I find this difficult to apply to verbs that project e.g. mental verbs “think, believe, understand” etc and verbal verbs “say, claim, state” etc. “He said ok” – this is simple because it only has one clause (one main verb). “He said … Read more

Is it possible for a word in a sentence to have two grammatical functions at once?

I just saw this question, which is about the whoever/whomever choice in these sentences: I will kill whomever I despise. I will kill whoever despises me. It made me think; what is the object of the verb kill? Is it not who(m)ever? Then what is the object (subject) of the verb despise in the first … Read more

‘It’s just the way it is’ – functional / notional descriptor

Given a set of expressions, when responding to questions about rules and regulations. ‘It’s just the way it is.’ ‘It’s the rules.’ ‘It’s just not allowed.’ What would be a good functional/notional description of this lexical set. Shutting down? Avoiding explaining? Refusal to engage in discussion? EAQUALS from the British Council, page 6 shows the … Read more