CaGEL equivalent to obligatory adverbial?

When I learnt grammar in school, I was taught that there are optional and obligatory adverbials. Trying to understand grammar in the form presented by Huddleston and Pullum (e.g. the Cambridge Grammar of the English Language and A Student’s Introduction to English Grammar), I’m wondering how to deal with “obligatory adverbials” such as the following: … Read more

Are these PPs or non-finite clauses – or something else entirely?

I’m wondering about the construction for [NP] to [VP], as illustrated in the following examples: (1) I waited for you to come here (2) He arranged for me to go there (3) For him to do that took courage (4) For you to apologise is not enough My questions are: what is this construction from … Read more

Where is the subject in a sentence that starts with a prepositional phrase

Where is the subject in a sentence that starts with a prepositional phrase. For example the preposition phrase beginning with after below: After breakfast the boys wandered out to the garden. Is the subject the boys only or After breakfast the boys, and why? It would be helpful if someone did a tree diagram and … Read more

How is this structure formed? A case of ‘inverted adjective’?

Here are the structures in question: Is there a region in the United States of America that has a pronunciation similar, …. Tuscany)? compare with: … that has a similar pronunciation, ….. Source: Where is standard American English derived from? I know that some people may find this question silly, but can we actually write … Read more

“from which this town was created” or “from which this town was created out of”

I have a phrase “which indicates the city from which this town was created”. The idea is that the town was created from, or out of (carved from) the city. I am not sure if this is grammatically correct. I was also thinking maybe “which indicates the city from which this town was created out … Read more

In/into/at What to use

So, English isn’t my native language and my school teacher gave us this: Complete: Let’s go………….. my office. A) at B) in C) out D) for E) into I would go for at/in/into. She said it was “for” and explained it to me using some direct translations to my language, but that answer does not … Read more

Correct preposition after the word encouragement

I am writing a paper and I am not quite sure about the correct preposition that comes after the word encouragement. “Consequently, there was always encouragement towards, for, to any kind of art forms in the house.” Thank you all in advance. Answer The confusion that you have regarding the usage of to and for … Read more

Is the phrase “the ease at which / the ease by which …” correct

1) ** Is it correct to follow “ease” with “at which” such as in “The **ease at which you can carry this bag depends on the angle you hold it from” 2) Does anyone have a good source recommendation for the rules of using different nouns with along with the word “which”? Answer ease at … Read more

Use of the preposition “by” along with “which”

There is a difference in the difficulty by which the two different objects can be lifted up. Is “by” correct here? Does “difficulty by which” sound natural? is there maybe a better alternative? Thanks a lot in advance! Answer This is a question about what preposition to use with “difficulty”. It is being confused by … Read more