“To include” vs. “including”

In the hot story of today (the U.S. Senate report on “Enhanced Interrogation Techniques”), I noticed the following:

He was subjected to numerous and repeated torture techniques, to include being waterboarded 83 times.

The same construction is there in the report itself. To include? What happened to including?


Yes, it was incorrect to say “to include” rather than “including”.

This error is almost universal among U.S. military officers. Most of them say “to include” in every single case where they should say “including”. Every time. And this has been true for at least the last three decades.

I have no idea how this started, but it is easy to imagine a folk etymology for it. You could imagine a general giving the order “you are to take this and to include these”. The recipient of the order is unclear on proper grammar, and so later replies with “I took that, to include those”. And somehow the error spread.

I don’t know if that is the actual cause of this error. But it is true that the infinitive is appropriate for giving orders, and the military often deals with orders. And it is true that this error is now firmly entrenched in the common speech patterns of that community.

Source : Link , Question Author : Vali Jamal , Answer Author : Retired

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