Often a country will have regions called “provinces” or “states”. Other times they are called “territories” and “protectorates”.
- Is there a generic term for these words?
- Is there a full list of words that belong to this group?
- What makes them different from each other?
A good general name for the entire group of such regions would be administrative division. The linked Wikipedia article has a comprehensive list, which also includes towns and cities, neighborhoods, an the like. The differences between these divisions all come down to:
- Size of the region
- Type of government
- Local language/naming conventions