Where do I use (and not use) “that?” (not a vs. “this” question)

Given this sentence, the that feels unnecessary:

If I believed that I were in a position to do so, I would.

I find these seemingly spurious instances of that working their way into my prose all the time.

Another example where it seems unnecessary:

I’ve been around people so critical that I ceased hearing them.

My question is: What is the grammatical basis determining where that is appropriate in sentences like these?

Answer

We can omit that in all positions, except when the that goes
at the beginning of a sentence . . . or when the that-clause comes
after an abstract noun . . . We usually omit that in speech.

‘An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage’ by Leech and others.

In relative clauses, that is usually omitted unless it is the subject.

If I were and if I was are both grammatical in British English, but not, apparently, in American English.

Attribution
Source : Link , Question Author : Chris , Answer Author : Barrie England

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